B) They have extreme longevity. Neurons differ in their morphology and function. Which of the following correctly describes a graded potential? D) control the chemical environment around neurons a. microglial cells. When activated, shortens C. Found in the brain and spinal cord. True or False, A stimulus traveling toward a synapse appears to open calcium ion channels at the presynaptic end, which in turn promotes fusion of synaptic vesicles to the axonal membrane. The part of a neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called a(n) ________. They are like neurons except that they lack axons. Allow ions to move in and out of its cellular membrane. 23 We detected neurons and extracted temporal components from the calcium imaging data (Figure 2 C) with the CNMF-E toolbox. Neurons create extensive communication networks throughout the nervous system. Which of the following portions of the neuron transmits neurotransmitters? Contains cells with macrophage activity c. Exhibits regenerative capacities d. Contains lymphatic vessel. c. cause imbalance. The interior is ________. Identify the cell type below that assists the function of neurons and has a supportive role within the nervous system? _____________ is a process for responding to brain injury. C) They have an exceptionally high metabolic rate. DI) They have an exceptionally high metabolic rate. The autonomic has two divisions: the sympathetic and parasympathetic. Cedric S Raine. A) ependymal cells b. the structure is closer to the midline of the brain. hippocampus, which of the following would most likely be the result? a) axon b) axon hillock c) dendrites d) soma, Which of the following is not a structural feature of a neuron? The part of a neuron that sends neurotransmitters into a synapse is called a(n): 6. These neurons are inhibitory neurons, meaning they release neurotransmitters that keep other neurons from firing. Schwann cells myelinate PNS axons. Neurons are relatively small, simple-structured cells. What is a substance released from neurons that influences the sensitivity of neurons to neurotransmitters called? Name the two other neuron types which are cholinergic. 45. c. interneurons make inhibitory connections with damaged neurons. Why does injection of a local anesthetic into a finger still cause a loss of the sensation of touch from the finger? The part of a neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called a (n) ________. Motorneurons release acetylcholine at: 68. c. working memory. A severe tremor in someone's hands could be caused by abnormal functioning in the: Just what does pass from the neuron to the muscle cells and, Which neuroglial cell type in the CNS is associated with many functions including support for neurons, forming a blood-brain barrier, secretion of neurotrophic factors, and uptake of K+ and neurotransmitters? The comparison demonstrates that the suggested controller closely tracks the reference voltage than the . b. cerebellum. Which of the following IS NOT a description of a neuron? 79. d. reduce cortical arousal. A) the impulse would move to the axon terminal only 15. True or False, Some neurotransmitters can be either excitatory or inhibitory depending upon the receptor. The basal ganglia act to stabilize voluntary movements. b. Microglial cells B) Specific potassium gates will open. A) mechanically gated channel This area is also known as the soma or perikaryon. Which cell causes endothelial cells to fit closely together? c. Generate ATP. c. midbrain. Which of the following mechanisms is most significant in returning Na+ and K+ concentrations to resting ionic conditions (from point D to point E)? They propel cellular components along microtubules. ce3z/(4zi)3dz_ce^{3z}/(4z-i)^3dz A. Sensory. This disease causes gradual muscle stiffness . D) gamma aminobutyric acid, Which of the following describes the nervous system integrative function? d. cerebral blood vessels. I was doing so well." d. reticular activating system. What type of neuron connects sensory and motor neurons in neural pathways? The p.N370S substitution causes a violation of the enzyme conformation, which affects its stability in the cell. (a . How can potentially poisonous gases like NO and CO be used by the body? a. Doral root 20. d. the hypothalamus. c. The person may stop breathing. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of smooth muscle? a. pituitary gland. c. the person had a past traumatic brain injury. b. c. medulla D) spinal cord and spinal nerves, The substance released at axon terminals to propagate a nervous impulse is called a(n) ________. These gases are neurotransmitters that act indirectly. In two words, the functions of neuron tissue that we can specify is that the integration, and communication are the main function of this specialized tissue. The _________________ facilitates balance and the timing of movements. a. it provides a protective cushion for the brain. What is the role of acetylcholinesterase? the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Its cell body is in an autonomic ganglion outside the CNS. A neuron is formed when a receptor ends on another cell becomes active. Neuroglia found in the CNS that bind axons and blood vessels to each other are called ________. b. cause inattention. Which of the following is correct? 42. Nanoscale integrated circuit technologies have become popular for designing and implementing biologically inspired pulse-based brain systems [1].These advanced Nanoscale devices are implemented in specific defined models of neuronal recording [[2], [3], [4]].Especiallyto replace a dead neuron system with an artificial neuron system to activate the paralyzed body parts. b. they prevent axons from re-growing. A patient was admitted for depression. Unipolar,Bipolar,Multipolar. Motor neurons transmit the nerve impulses from CNS to effectors (muscles and glands). Has component cells designed for conductivity b. b. Glossopharyngeal nerve C) the impulse would spread bidirectionally Which of the following is not characteristic of neurons? Immediately after an action potential the potassium gates, being slow gates that do not respond to change in the electrical charge, allow additional K+ ions to flood into the cell. Which of the following are the cells of nervous tissue? d. gyri. d. cause a tremor. Cerebrospinal is located in the following structures except: Which of the following is not a chemical class of neurotransmitters? a. meninges. The STN also forms a reciprocally connected network with the GABAergic external globus pallidus that converges onto common basal ganglia output neurons. What are the basic divisions of the peripheral nervous system? Which ion channel opens in response to a change in membrane potential and participates in the generation and conduction of action potentials? a. sensory neuron b. interneuron c. motor neuron d. gland e. muscle. a. d. temporal lobe. Mountainside's local landscaping business totaled approximately $789,400 in sales for the year. A) a change in sodium ion permeability Many drugs that produce highly enjoyable effects likely do so by affecting the: a. corpus callosum. Define neurotransmitter. A drug that increases appetite would likely affect: What are the different types of neurons in the ANS and where are they located? A) axon B) Group A fibers are mostly somatic sensory and motor and are the smallest in diameter. a) ion b) cholinesterase c) neurotransmitter d) biogenic amine. lowers the probability of producing an action potential. A person suffering from an inability to speak the word she intends to say, sometimes b. cerebellum. b. on the soma. The generation of an action potential in a neuron requires the presence what type of membrane channels? The all-or-none phenomenon as applied to nerve conduction states that the whole nerve cell must be stimulated for conduction to take place. Polygenic inheritance is the inheritance of traits that are influenced by multiple genes. Which pattern of neural processing is important for higher level mental processing such as problem solving? What function is served by the increased axon diameter at the nodes of Ranvier? Which of the following is NOT a function or characteristic of neurons? Discovering that early life stress may cause polymorphisms that increase the risk of d. Neurons. The hypothalamus is located in the: Which of the following is false or incorrect? B) amino acid What parts of a neuron are completely contained within a ganglion? 1. B) chloride a. alertness. High mitotic rate B. Specialized cells in the nervous system that control behavior, senses, and movement are. Neuroglia (a) conduct electrical impulses, (b) are nerve stem cells, (c) are support cells that aid neurons, (d) are an abnormal growth of neural tissue. The point where a motor neuron meets a muscle fiber is called the: Name the parts that comprise the elbow joint. a. reference memory. They are electrically excitable cells which generate action potentials. Specialized cells in the nervous system that control behavior, senses, and movement are called: a. neurons. We investigated here the direct and differential effects of inflammatory mediators on human neurons. b. Reactive astrocytes Neurons may be classified according to several characteristics. 3. (1991) finds that the CA1 neuron exhibits trains of action potentials when a small current (< 1 nA) is applied to the soma, but a full calcium spike and burst followed by trains of action potentials when the same small current is applied to . C) serotonin The contractions of skeletal muscles pull on tendons and move bones of the skeleton. 70. a. Neurons communicate with other neurons in the central nervous system. C) microglia Which of the following are functions of the CNS? 12. How are women stereotyped by men in Lamb to the Slaughter by Roald Dahl? motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands. The cells communicate by sending signals between different parts of the brain, and the neurons can interface with gray matter nuclei. ________ is a disease that gradually destroys the myelin sheaths of neurons in the CNS, particularly in young adults. b. transcription factors. Which of the following describes the ANS? d. proteins. Fill in the blank. The parasympathetic division includes the splanchnic nerves. A postsynaptic cell can be a neuron, a muscle cell, or a secretory cell. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. a. If physicians found that inflammation had caused damage to the blood-brain barrier, which Choose the correct order of these events below. To which part of the spinal cord is sensory information sent? a. temporal lobe. All of the following describe the functions of astrocytes except: Although neurologic recovery is complete, amnesia for the event persists. Neuroglia that control the chemical environment around neurons by buffering potassium and recapturing neurotransmitters are ________. a) Myelinated axons transmit nerve impulses via continuous conduction. d. Inhibited salvation. They are the fundamental units that send and receive signals which allow us to move our muscles, feel the external world, think, form memories and much more. d. act as transcription factors. High metabolic rate C. Require continuous supplies of glucose and oxygen D. Extreme longevity E. No exceptions; all of these are characteristic of neurons. View the full answer. c. Astrocytes a) motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands b) motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles c) sensory and motor neurons t. 1. b. The term central nervous system refers to the ________. b. Microglial cells Preganglionic neurons are short and synapse in ganglia located near the spinal cord. What process does this interfere with and what would be the consequence? While taking notes in class, a student had keep in mind what the professor had just stated in a. d. astrocytes. Which of the following is not characteristic of neurons? 43. Damage to the hippocampus would likely cause impairments to long-term memory a. synapses. d. frontal lobe. Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. Which of the following is not true of graded potentials? [25] designed a voltage output feedback controller, which uses the neural network feed-forward (NNFF) with the harmony search algorithm (HSA) to control the PEMFC output voltage. D) all sodium gates are closed, In what way does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a resting (nonconducting) neuron differ from the external environment? d. None of these are correct. are crucial for the development of neural connections. destroy ACh a brief period after its release by the axon endings. Both responses are examples of graded potentials. C) receptor B) Schwann cells In epilepsy research, there is a growing interest in the role of the piriform cortex (PC) in the development and maintenance of limbic kindling and other types of limbic . c. epigenetic stimulus. c. occipital lobe. d. increased protection of the brain. . a. Dendrite b. Be They secrete acetylcholine. Preganglionic neurons tend to be long, with the ganglion located in or near the effector target tissue (s). As you start working out, you notice that your heart rate and breathing rate start to increase. Which component has a role in the postsynaptic cell during synaptic activity? Neurons are located both in the CNS and on the periphery. Which of the following statements is true of both membrane potential responses shown in the graphs? The following is a list of characteristics of neurons: - Neurons are cells that specialized in the transmission of electrical impulses. The cell bodies of the upper motor neurons are located in the spinal cord B. Which of the following is not true about the cerebral cortex? C) negatively charged and contains more sodium a. ribosomes. A toxin that destroyed the presynaptic terminal on an axon would likely: 7. D) tracts, The term central nervous system refers to the ________. b. glial cells. ATP neurotransmitters have what basic effect on the body? 18. Neurons generate and conduct electrical impulses called action potentials. Sensory receptors for touch (and pressure) respond to physical deformation of the receptors, resulting in the opening of specific mechanically gated ion channels. c. in the synapse. the afferent division of the nervous system. 2. B) A nerve impulse occurs if the excitatory and inhibitory effects are equal. d. oligodendrocytes fail to myelinate re-growing axons. What functional class of neuron carries impulses away from the CNS to muscles or glands? c. genes. What are the different types of motor neurons? A) nuclei 66. A. astrocytes B. ependymal cells C. microglia D. Schwann cells, Which of the following options is correct? b. it provides a medium for nutrients to cells. A disorder that damaged oligodendrocytes would be expected to impede neurotransmission. B) are found on "pathfinder" neurons In each of the following sentences, circle the phrase following the subject. b. the person has a disease that affects myelin around axons. What is the functional neuron type that is the most prevalent in the CNS? Neurons are a specific type of nervous system cell that is able to generate signals and transmit them to other neurons or target end-cells. B They have extreme longevity. The synapse more common in embryonic nervous tissue than in adults is the ________. Begin by sketching the contour. Which of the following is not a function of astrocytes? What is the role of microglial cells and why are they so important in the CNS? Briefly describe 6 effects this division has on the body. cells would most likely be responsible? GBA variants increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) by 10 times. c. afferent neuron. C) leakage channel the membrane potential has been reestablished. d. Polymorphism, 50. d. Interneurons, 16. a. polymorphisms. Which membrane potential occurs because of the influx of Na+ through chemically gated channels in the receptive region of a neuron? It is concluded that motor and sensory axons have a different substrate preference at early postnatal stages but this difference is lost in the adult. a. sodium b. chloride c. calcium d. potassium, A neuron that has as its primary function the job of connecting other neurons is call a(n) _____. The parts of neurons that receive information from other neurons are called: 4. D) nitric oxide, Which of the following describes the excitatory postsynaptic potential? Neurons are found across the body but are most numerous in the brain. C) They can be called postsynaptic potentials. 8. Two subtypes of motor neurons have been identified: inferior and superior. A neuron that has as its primary function the job of connecting other neurons is called a(n) ________. Expert Answer. D. Skeletal muscles supports the weight of some internal organs. a. To reveal how individual NAc neurons respond to reward, we implanted gradient index (GRIN) lenses in the NAcLat and the NAcMed and recorded single-neuron calcium activity using a miniature head-mounted microscopy (Figures 2 A and 2B). Reflexes are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli. 55. (a) Voltage-gated calcium channels open (b) Neurotransmitter binds to receptors (c) Action potential arrives at axon terminal (d) Neurotransmitter is removed from the synaptic cleft (e) Neurotransmitter released into synaptic cleft (f) Graded potential generated in postsynaptic cell, (c) Action potential arrives at axon terminal (a) Voltage-gated calcium channels open (e) Neurotransmitter released into synaptic cleft (b) Neurotransmitter binds to receptors (f) Graded potential generated in postsynaptic cell (d) Neurotransmitter is removed from the synaptic cleft. A) Group C fibers are not capable of saltatory conduction. d. Neurotrophins. Which of the following membrane regions would have significant numbers of voltage-gated ion channels? a. the classification is based on the number of processes extending from the cell body b. multipolar neurons have several axons and one dendrite c. most neurons in the; Which of the following neurons forms the blood-brain barrier?

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